Tete a tete“In the spring, at the end of the day, you should smell like dirt” ~Margaret Atwood

Spring blooming bulbs are (finally!) underway and require no attention other than regular admiration but there is plenty to do in the garden during the longer days of late March.

  • Start out with spring garden cleaning – cut down stalks of dead plants you left up all winter as habitat for overwintering insects, shake any remaining seed pods onto the ground (if you want plant seeds to self-sow) and clear away any debris
  • Check your tools to see if any any wooden handles are dry (linseed oil is good for this) or need sharpening; check pots left outside to see if any have cracks.
  • If you haven’t had your soil tested, now’s a good time to do it. While local cooperative extension services often offer soil testing, UMass Amherst is also a good option.
    *  More useful information on soil testing in a previous post
  • Get going (if you haven’t done so already) on indoor seed starting – tomatoes and peppers and other plants that need to wait for warmer soils to be planted outside should be started 4-6 before average last frost date.  Useful instructions on seed starting from a previous post are right here, and instructions for an easy DIY seed starting stand (also from previous post) are right here
  • Give the garden a good raking over to loosen the top soil and break up any clumps of dirt – this in preparation for sowing seeds for cool season planting

GardenSeeds_2015What can be planted this time of year? Lots!

*  Greens: Lettuce, spinach, chard, mustard, kale
*  Root crops:  Carrots, radishes, beets, turnips, kohlrabi
*  Early peas such as snow peas and sugar snap

Here’s a planning calendar for what to plant and when plus an article on preparing your soil.

Yet another easier than pie fermentation experimentation – preserved lemons.

This requires just two ingredients – lemons and kosher salt. While traditionally Meyer lemons are used, I’ve found the garden variety grocery store lemons (4-5 per pint jar) are more than adequate. Scrub the lemons well, soak for a few minutes in a vinegar/water solution then rinse again. And then:

  1. Put a tbsp of kosher salt into the bottom of a sterilized pint sized jar
  2. Slice off the ends of each lemon then cut into quarters without cutting all the way through (keep the base intact)
  3. Gently open up each lemon and rub a tsp of salt on the pulp
  4. Stuff lemons into the jar as you go, leaving 1/2″ of headroom at the top
  5. Sprinkle another tbsp of salt on top then seal the jar
  6. Let the jar sit at room temperature (out of sunlight) for three days; a few times a day give the jar a shake and rotate it (upside down, then right side up)
    — If the juice doesn’t cover the lemons after the first day, add additional fresh squeezed lemon juice to cover
  7. After 3 days, put the lemons in the refrigerate, giving it a shake every so often to distribute juice and salt

The lemons will be ready when the rinds are soft (about 3 weeks). To use, peel off the pulp and wash the rind (to get rid of the surface salt).

Now, how to use these delicious aromatic bursts of concentrated lemon?  Add to soups and stews such as this delicious Moroccan tagine, grain salads like this, salad dressings and more.

And on a sunny Sunday afternoon, what could be be better than a salty collins (made with preserved lemons, of course)!

Pre-Preserved Lemon

Snowdrops“Lone flower, hemmed in with snows and white as they but hardier far” ( Wordsworth, To a Snowdrop)

It’s been a long winter with polar vortexes and sub freezing temperatures, unusual for a typically mild mid-Atlantic clime.  Although spring is still around the corner and down the road a bit there are signs here that winter is winding down.Spring SnowGardener

Snowdrops emerged a few weeks ago, soon to be covered by almost a foot of snow. But these are no shrinking violets – when the snow melted the snowdrops were still in full bloom. Next on stage here at HeliosMonroe are crocuses, yellow first then other varieties. Although a favorite snack of the neighborhood squirrels when freshly planted, it seems that once the crocus become established the squirrels are off to greener pastures (and bulbs).  Daffodils won’t be far behind, and then irises and the rest of the seasonal bulbs.

“Spring is the time of plans and projects” (Tolstoy, Anna Karenina) but for now I’m going to pause and admire the flowers ~


My recent experimentation with fermentation was a great success which lead to new forays into this new (but ancient) world of preserving the harvest. Sauerkraut is easier than pie – cabbage, salt, and optional caraway seeds. Mixing red and green cabbage, adding grated carrots, red or daikon radish or just about any other vegetable you fancy are optional enhancements. Easy recipe for making sauerkraut in a mason jar here.

There are thousands of ways to make kimchi, but the basics typically have Napa cabbage, scallions, daikon radish and a mix of spices including ginger, garlic, fish sauce and gochugaru (Korean red pepper). I was fortunate in finding the gochugaru at one of my local markets, with the help of the Korean manager (who also gave me good advice on making my first batch of kimchi).  The recipe I used as a basis for making kimchi is right here. Once you get your kimchi going, try using it in this quinoa, kale and kim chi recipe, or check out these recipes.

Interested in more fermentation?  I recommend Sandor Ellix Katz’s Wild Fermentation as well as these two books he wrote:   The Art of Fermentation and (somewhat more  practical) Wild Fermentation.


Gardening in small spaces, making pickles, growing specialty crops, edible landscapes and healthy affordable food for all are just a few of the topics at the annual Rooting DC urban gardening forum. This day-long event – which includes panel discussions, workshops and talks –  is free (donations appreciated) and open to the public. The forum includes an info fair with lots of  great organizations coming to share opportunities and information.

Mark your calendar now for February 28th from 9:00am – 4:00pm at Wilson HS, advance registration is recommended.


Late winter is prime time to think about seed starting, and with a big order coming from Pinetree there will be plenty of seeds to be started. While many seeds are direct seeded, others need a head start (and some seed starting tips from previous HeliosMonroe posts can be found right here).

I made two seed starting stands using a design created by my mother;  a diagram and her original instructions are here: Betsey’s Seedling Starting Stand (circa 1900’s). Each stand holds six seed starting trays. Yes, I start lots and lots of plants from seed.  And with a bit of wood, screws and hinges, some shop lights and a few tools (and some space) you can make a stand (or two). When seed starting season is over, the stand is easy to fold up and store out of the way until next seed starting seasons rolls around.

For one stand, you’ll need:

*  54′ of 1″ x 2″furring strip (choose pieces that are as straight as possible)
*  Two pieces of 1/4″ or 3/8″ plywood (exterior is better):  16″ x 48″ and 24″ x 48″ — Many stores will cut the plywood to size (although you usually need to buy the whole sheet of plywood)
*  Two strap hinges
*  Phillips head screws
*  Three 4′ shop lights (I use one cool and one warm florescent light per shop light)
*  2-3′ of chain and 6 ‘S’ hooks, or rope — chain and hooks are often included with shop lights

Tools:  Saw, drill with philips head screwdriver bit, measuring tape

  1. Cut the furring strips: 4 x 72″ for the legs, 6 x 54″ for the sides; also cut 8 x 3″ pieces for the shelves
  2. For each piece of 72″ wood, mark the following measurements: 1″ from top, 25″ from top, 50″ from top (hint:  use a dark color & mark all the way across the strip)
  3. Place two pieces of 72″ wood on the floor, 54″ apart and parallel to each other
  4. Place three pieces of 54″ wood across the legs to form the sides – one piece just below the 1″ mark, one just below the 25″ mark and the third just below the 50″ mark
  5. Drill two screws at each intersection to secure the wood together
  6. Form the other side of the stand by repeating steps 3 – 5
  7. Attach strap hinges to the top of each leg on the underside – the stand will open and close like a tent, or laptop computer
  8. Make the shelves by securing a 3″ piece lengthwise to all four corners of the bottom of each piece of plywood; use two screws (per 3″ piece)
  9. Open the stand and place the smaller piece of plywood across the sides at the top of the stand, the larger piece goes across the sides at the bottom of the stand; the small 3″ pieces you screwed to the bottom of the plywood will “catch” the sides and hold the shelves in place
  10. Use rope or chain to hang the lights, you can adjust the height as the plants grow; for the bottom lights, it may help to attach ‘S’ hooks to a short bar to keep them in place

Tip:  Take a look at the diagram linked to above, and here. It helps.

Having three bird feeders (two sunflower feeders plus a thistle feeder) and suet hanging by the farm kitchen door and window brings an endless stream of birds – chickadees, tufted titmice, cardinals, nuthatches, finches and lots of LBBs (little brown birds).  Ground feeders like morning doves and Chippy-Chippy the chipmunk enjoy the spillage; some of the sunflower seeds that survive will volunteer and turn into sunflower trees.

With all the inbound and outbound bird traffic, you’d expect occasional flight miscalculations would result in collisions with a windowpane or door pane but it just didn’t happen. Until a family member recently commented on the lack of bird/glass strikes — shortly after this comment was made a loud “BAM!” came from the kitchen door.

Just outside the door we could see a bird lying prone with it’s neck twisted in a way that seemed inconsistent with life. It was a juvenile male Cooper’s Hawk. After waiting a few minutes (and with no movement), I went out with a shovel and gloves to bury the body away from the house/dogs.

But when I rounded the corner, the bird was sitting up.  Not moving, but upright – a bird not a body – and definitely not dead yet! Wrapping a towel around Tommy (the Hawk) and taking him to a sheltered spot was the first step in getting him back on his feet. Or wings.

A quick Google search gave a few more suggestions:

*  Put the bird in a warm, dark spot and preferably in a container with a lid
*  Handle as little as possible
*  Keep the bird safe from children, pets, predators
*  Check on the bird periodically by taking the box outside and opening it – if the bird flies off then it has recovered
*  If the bird hasn’t recovered in a few hours, contact a nearby wildlife rehabilitator
— Rehabilitators are often listed under state Department of Natural Resources or in this Wildlife Rehab directory

Great suggestions on how to keep birds safe around windows is found on this excellent Cornell Lab of Ornithology web page.

The story had a happy ending – after spending time in the Hawk Recovery Room (former chicken house), Tommy the Hawk flew into the branches of the nearby Sycamore, then flew away. Goodbye Tommy, and please do your hunting somewhere else.

And after all this, we were only a bit late for the family dinner (our mother would have approved).



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